- Beer is made by fermentation of starch sugars obtained from malted barley and malted wheat grains.
- Stout is another type of beer, dark in colour which is made out of roasted barley fermentation. Traditionally hops are added to beers to achieve the sharp bitter taste.
- Wine is made by fermentation of grapes primarily and sometimes fruits (for fruit wine)
- Champagne is a kind of wine made out of grapes which is obtained by secondary fermentation that gives the effervescence to it (and hence the work ‘sparkling’). It comes from a region in France called Champagne.
- Brandy is usually prepared by distilled wine.
(Separating the constituents of a liquid mixture by evaporation and condensation is called Distillation).
- Whiskey is made by distillation of fermented grain mash or grain mixture (commonly can contain barley, wheat, rye etc).
- Bourbon is an American whiskey variant which is distilled from corn grain and aged in barrels. Jim Beam is an exemplification of bourbon whiskey. Most of the bourbon producers are located in Tennessee, America. Some of the bourbon varieties have come to be known as Tennessee whiskey. Jack Daniels is an another Tennessee whiskey.
- Vodka is usually prepared by distillation of starch or sugars from grains (rye, corn, wheat) and also potatoes. However many varieties of vodka are made from molasses, fruits and even plain crystallised sugar fermented by yeast.
- Gin is a distilled spirit which derives its exclusive flavour from juniper berries. Gin is distilled from grain mash and then distilled again with juniper berries and botanicals. Sometimes flavouring is adscititious to the liquid to induce the gin flavour.
- Feni is a local liquor made in the state of Goa, India from coconuts and cashews. The raw product decides whether it is a coconut feni or cashew feni.
- Scotch is a type of whiskey made in Scotland and it also gets its name from it. Scotch whiskey may be malt whiskey (raw product used: malted barley) and grain whiskey (raw product used: grains like wheat, corn, rye apart from malted barley, if required). Scotch whiskey maybe single malt blended (Chivas Regal, Glenmorangie), single grain and blended grain.
- Rum is a distilled beverage made by distilling the byproducts from sugarcane plant like sugarcane molasses or sometimes sugarcane juice itself.
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